Vol. 3. Part 2 1996
One hundred and thirty species of lichens in 69 genera are reported from San Clemente Island, Los Angeles County, California. This list was compiled from collections made in 1966 by W.A. Weber and R. Santesson, other material collected by casual visitors to the Island, species recorded by Bowler and Riefner on three forays to the Island, and from the literature. The lichen flora shows affinities with the adjacent mainland flora as well as with communities characteristic of coastal northwestern Baja California, Mexico.
The lichen flora of San Clemente Island has been poorly known, with only one publication (Hasse 1903) dedicated exclusively to it. Hasse recorded 22 species on the basis of collections made by Blanche Trask. Since that time there have been numerous vascular plant collectors (Raven 1963) who visited the Island, many of whom made casual lichen collections which are deposited in various herbaria. The most intensive lichen collecting which has occurred was an expedition in April, 1966 by W.A. Weber (University of Colorado Museum) and R. Santesson (Uppsala). Three collection trips were made by Bowler and/or Riefner: December 16-19, 1983 (Bowler), December 8-11, 1984 (Bowler) and April 4, 1989 (Bowler and Riefner).
San Clemente Island is 102 km west-northwest of San Diego, and the main military habitation area, Wilson's Cove, lies at 23°04' N. latitude and 118°33' W. longitude. The total land area is 148.5 square km, and the island is long and narrow, 34 km (21 miles) at the largest axis, 6 km (4 miles) wide at the southern end and 3 km (2 miles) wide at the northern end (see Chambers Consultants and Planners  for detailed descriptions of the physical setting of San Clemente Island). The southern portion of the Island is used for naval bombardment (Shore Bombardment Area); access is restricted, and we were not able to visit the area. The climate is maritime with mild winters and cool summers. There is little seasonal or diurnal temperature variation, with summer 18.33C (65F) and winter 12.78C (55F) means differing only by 5.568C (10 F). Humidity is usually very high with an annual average of 80 percent, and thick coastal fog caused by upwelling is common. San Clemente is much drier than the adjacent mainland, and receives only 12.5-20 cm (5-8 inches) of precipitation annually.
It seems likely that many native vascular plant species which would have been lichen substrates have been extirpated or significantly reduced by 200 years of grazing on San Clemente and that a corresponding simplification in the corticolous lichen flora has occurred (the complete extent of species loss and community change will never be known because goats and pigs were introduced to San Clemente Island before botanists collected there). This simplification is especially likely in view of the fact that over 13% of the native flora of Santa Catalina has been eliminated, and Santa Catalina has experienced much less grazing impact than San Clemente. Thus the present range and density of corticolous substrates for lichens in the simplified vascular plant community may be a relic of what the flora once was. It is remarkable to see species such as Ramalina menziesii limited to tiny groves of a dozen oaks, but these are in fact the only trees on the part of the island visited by us.
The most intact and best developed lichen community is that on the coastal rocks and shrubs in the "maritime scrub" formation. The Eel Point area contains an outstanding example of this community with comparable sites occurring in northwestern Baja California, Mexico. It should be made an official preserve, since it is the finest accessible lichen area left. The rich development of saxicolous and corticolous Niebla species and the abundant presence of species such as Teloschistes californicus (= T. villosus of authors), now rare or absent in mainland California maritime lichen communities of this kind but present in similar sites near San Quintin in Baja California, emphasize the coastal Mexican community components. Species common in this coastal lichen community that are richly represented along the southern San Clemente coast include such indicators as Niebla ceruchis and N. cephalota (corticolous), N. ceruchoides, N. laevigata, N. robusta, N. procera, N. homalea (saxicolous; abundant on all of the lower terraces; see Bowler et al., 1994; Bowler and Riefner, 1995), Schizopelte californica, Dendrographa leucophaea, Roccella fimbriata, Lecanora pinguis, and Xanthoria spp. which form a band on the ocean-facing bluffs. A puzzling absence is Trichoramalina crinita, a species whose northernmost localities were Point Loma and Torrey Pines in San Diego County. Riefner, Bowler, and Ryan (1995) recently reported Dendrographa leucophaea, Punctelia borreri, and Ramalina fastigiata from the Island. Numerous Niebla species were recorded from San Clemente and several of the other Channel Islands by Bowler, Riefner, Rundel, Marsh and Nash (1994). Reinkella parishii, another member of the coastal cliff community, is also reported from the coastal saxicolous community. Teloschistes flavicans and T. chrysophthalmus have thus far been collected in one oak grove, but probably were more widespread on the Island prior to the decimation of the woody vascular plants. In addition to common coastal mainland species including a large number whose southern distributional limits are on the coast of southern California, other species found on San Clemente Island are near the northern end of their ranges. Among the vascular plants, the abundant Bergerocactus emoryi and isolated stands of Euphorbia misera, both of whose northern ranges end in Orange County on the mainland, also indicate a southern mainland origin. Although Euphorbia misera is a richly colonized substrate for lichens in northern Baja California, it is lichenologically barren on San Clemente Island, as it is in the mainland stand at Dana Point in Orange County.
The Final Environmental Impact Statement (Chambers Consultants and Planners 1981) noted that "When [maritime coastal scrub] covered larger areas, this vegetation may have included a significant component of chaparral shrubs, including Adenostoma, Ceanothus, Crossosoma, Dendromecon, Heteromeles, Malosma (Rhus laurina), Prunus, Rhamnus, Sambucus, and Toxicodendron, perhaps similar to the mixtures on nearby Santa Catalina Island. These shrubs apparently were part of the Island vegetation, but currently occur only as widely scattered, fully mature (and often browse-damaged) individuals: several species reportedly can no longer be found on the Island" (see Dunkle 1950). The California Department of Fish and Game's California Natural Diversity Data Base identified the San Clemente communities as Coastal Bluff Scrub and Coastal Sage Scrub (Jensen 1983), and described it as "... a low-growing community on the mainland and may be somewhat taller on the islands. Most of the species are woody and/or succulent. Characteristic species include Dudleya spp., Coreopsis gigantea and Coreopsis maritima (not present on San Clemente), Eriogonum giganteum, E. grande, Rhus integrifolia, and the introduced taxa Carpobrotus aequilaterus (=C. chilensis [Molina] N.E. Br.) and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum..." The Data Base cited 2,500 acres of coastal scrub and 150 acres of coastal bluff scrub on San Clemente, which represent the maritime scrub communities that probably provided lichen substrates at one time. Recent studies of the Channel Island vascular plant flora appear in Power (1980), and in Halvorson and Maender (1994). In terms of the lichen community, the "Boxthorn Maritime Desert Scrub" association, on the lowest of the wave cut terraces along the southern and western shores, has the best representation seen by us of the coastal lichens occurring on the mainland, particularly in coastal Baja California (see Mooney  and Mulroy, Rundel and Bowler  for descriptions of similar Baja California communities). Iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) dominates the ground cover in places, and has probably reduced open ground areas once inhabited by lichens. This situation occurs in many other places, such as the San Quintin area of Baja California.
Table 1. The generic disposition of taxa reported from San Clemente Island. Nomenclature throughout follows Esslinger and Egan (1995) unless further information was available:
Acarospora (3), Amandinea (1), Aspicilia (1), Buellia (4), Caloplaca (11), Catillaria (1), Chrysothrix (1), Cladonia (1), Collema (1), Dendrographa (2), Dermatocarpon (1), Dimelaena (2), Diploicia (1), Diploschistes (1), Dirina (1), Endocarpon (1), Evernia (1), Flavoparmelia (1), Flavopunctelia (1), Fuscopannaria (1), Heppia (1), Heterodermia (2), Lecanactis (1), Lecania (2), Lecanographa (1), Lecanora (8), Lecidea (1), Lecidella (1), Leprocaulon (2), Leproloma (1), Leptochidium (1), Leptogium (1), Lichenothelia (1), Mobergia (1), Neofuscelia (1), Nephroma (1), Niebla (8), Opegrapha (1), Parmelia (1), Parmotrema (2), Peltula (1), Pertusaria (4), Phaeophyscia (1), Physcia (6), Physconia (2), Polycauliona (1), Psora (1), Psorula (1), Punctelia (3), Pyrrhospora (1), Ramalina (7), Reinkella (1), Rimelia (1), Rimularia (1), Rinodina (5), Roccella (2), Schizopelte (1), Sclerophyton (1), Sigridea (1), Sticta (1), Teloschistes (3), Tephromela (1), Thelomma (1), Toninia (2), Umbilicaria (1), Usnea (2), Verrucaria (2), Xanthoparmelia (3), Xanthoria (2), Zahlbrucknerella (1).
Collectors' names are abbreviated B, P.A. Bowler and B&R (or R&B), P.A. Bowler and R.E. Riefner, Jr. Numbers beginning with "L-" are those of Weber and Santesson in 1966; except where indicated, these are at COLO. Collections of Bowler and Riefner are at IRVC. Collection sites are designated by two-letter codes as follows:
EP: Eel Point.
BO: Just north of Boulder, head of canyon near reservoir, east side of the Island, 1000 ft. alt., on Quercus tomentella or on soil.
FS: Near the field station.
LP: Lost Point Canyon, just northwest of Thirst, a west-trending canyon running seaward toward the Point, west side of the Island, 1500 ft. alt.
LT: Canyon just below "Lemon Tank," between Stone and Nanny Canyons, east side of the Island, 1000 ft. alt.
fuscata (Schrader) Arnold -- LP: L-42876, L-42876 (LAM).
schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal. -- EP: L-42624.
smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. -- EP: L-42645, L-42656.
punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. (Buellia punctata [Hoffm.] A. Massal.) -- EP: L-42660, L-42662, L-42662 (LAM); BO: L-42851, L-42852.
contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. -- EP: L-42634. The areoles are more densely clumped than is usual for this species, but their more or less conical shape, together with the immersed disk which is characteristically pruinose, is a good mark. The spores are 20 x 15 µ.
cerussata Llimona & Werner (B. stellulata of American authors, not Mudd [Llimona and Werner 1975])-- EP: L-42611. The Sixth Checklist (Esslinger and Egan 1995) did not include this species.
halonia (Ach.) Tuck. -- EP: L-42632, L-42661.
oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. -- LT: L-42844.
Buellia sp. -- EP: L-42606; LT: L-42823. This appears to be a parasite on Lecanora cf. gangaleoides Nyl. (Brodo 1984), and is probably not a Buellia at all. The apothecia are sessile, about 1 mm in diameter, sometimes almost globular, convex at any rate, black. Spores are brown, 8 per ascus, 18 x 6 µ. One cell seems to be narrower than the other.
bolacina (Tuck.) Herre -- EP: L-42615, L-42629, L-42635, L-42635 (LAM); LP: L-42910.
californica Zahlbr. -- EP: L-42670. This has been mistaken for C. flavorubescens (Hudson) J.R. Laundon, whose presence in North America is still questionable. The San Clemente plant is from small twigs and has a yellow thallus with large, thick, wavy apothecial margins. Hasse (1903) reported this from San Clemente Island as Placodium aurantiacum.
catalinae H. Magn. -- BO: L-42854 p.p. Thallus gray; apothecia deep rust red. On bark.
coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting -- See Polycauliona.
luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup -- R&B 89-110 (WIS). On rock.
oregona H. Magn. -- BO: L-42854 p.p. Thallus gray; apothecia small, yellow. On bark.
rosei Hasse -- EP: L-42609, L-42616.
saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin -- EP: L-42628, L-42646, L-42648 (LAM); LP: L-42888.
cf. sipeana H. Magn. -- R&B 89-108 (IRVC, WIS).
stanfordensis H. Magn. -- EP: L-42665. Apothecia yellow with slightly pruinose disk. On bark.
stantonii W.A. Weber ex Arup -- LT: L-42831. On poorly consolidated rock derived from clay.
Caloplaca sp. -- LT: L-42850. This is a 1 cm diameter rosette, continuous, not lobed, with thallus and apothecia uniformly red-brown. Apothecia to 0.7 mm in diameter; spores 20 x 11 µ; septum 5 to 7 µ wide. On a smooth-barked tree with Lecanora horiza.
columbiana (G. Merr.) W. Noble -- LT: L-42849. On smooth bark. Confirmed by W. Noble.
candelaris (L.) J.R. Laundon -- LT: L-42841.
scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl. -- LP: L-42911; FS: B&R 89-413, beneath oaks. Det. S. Hammer.
Collema cf. tenax (Sw.) Ach. -- BO: L-42864; LP: L-42866. On soil. Lacking apothecia and therefore unidentifiable. It might be C. coccophorum Tuck.
leucophaea (Tuck.) Darbish. -- EP: L-42601; B. et al. s.n., 1989; B 84-106; R&B 89-102. Recorded by Riefner et al. (1995) and Hasse (1903).
alectoroides Sundin & Tehler f. parva Sundin & Tehler (D. minor of authors, not Darbishire) -- EP: L-42621,
B 84-104, B&R 89-415; LT: L-42837. This extends the range as reported by Sundin and Tehler (1996) 170 km southwest from Santa Cruz Is. See the article by Wright in this issue of the Bulletin for a discussion of the new names and other issues.
miniatum (L.) W. Mann -- LT: L-42832; LP: L-42878.
radiata (Tuck.) Hale & Culb. -- EP: L-42627 (LAM), B&R 89-426.
thysanota (Tuck). Hale & Culb. -- R&B 89-116 (IRVC, WIS).
canescens (Dickson) A. Massal. -- L-42602 (LAM), R&B 89-122, 89-123.
scruposus (Schreber) Norman -- LT: L-42824.
catalinariae Hasse f. catalinariae -- EP: L-42620.
catalinariae Hasse f. sorediata Tehler -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-412.
pusillum Hedwig -- EP: L-42653, confirmed by O. Breuss; L-42673.
prunastri (L.) Ach. -- on Quercus tomentella (B&R), not collected.
caperata (L.) Hale -- LT: L-42840.
flaventior (Stirton) Hale -- LP: L-42900.
praetermissa (Nyl.) P.M. Jřrg. (Pannaria praetermissa Nyl.) -- LP: L-42894.
lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. -- EP: L-42631.
erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber -- EP: L-42655.
leucomelos (L.) Poelt -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-403; LP: L-42899, L-42912.
dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente -- EP: L-42639, L-42641. On rock. New for the U.S. (Egea and Torrente 1992).
brunonis (Tuck.) Herre -- LT: L-42830.
dudleyi Herre -- EP: L-42651, L-42658, L-42659, L-42872.
hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente (Opegrapha hassei of authors, not Zahlbr.; Schismatomma hypothallinum [Zahlbr.] Hasse) -- EP: L-42614, L-42626, L-42640, B&R 89-425; LT: L-42829, R&B 89-109.
caesiorubella Ach. ssp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-401; LT: L-42845; LP: L-42905.
demissa (Flotow) Zahlbr. -- BO: L-42046 (LAM),
R&B 89-126. Confirmed by R. Santesson.
gangaleoides Nyl. sensu Brodo -- LP: L-42884.
horiza (Ach.) Lindsay -- EP: L-42666. Reported as Lecanora subfusca by Hasse (1903).
muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. -- LT: L-42819, L-42821.
rupicola (L.) Zahlbr. -- FS: R&B 89-121.
subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach. -- EP: L-42625, LP: L-42883.
xanthosora B.D. Ryan & Poelt -- EP: L-42618, R&B 89-111 (IRVC, WIS).
mannii Tuck. -- LP: L-42887, on rock; EP: L-42896.
asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel (L. elaeochromoides [Nyl.] Knoph & Hertel; Lecidea catalinaria Stizenb.) -- EP: L-42630; LP: L-42873. Confirmed by J. Knoph.
microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. (Stereocaulon microscopicum [Vill.] Frey) -- EP: L-42633.
Leproloma sp. -- EP: L-42617. This possibly undescribed species, distributed as Weber Lich. Exs. 455 and Nash Lich. Exs. 299, is believed by Weber to be one of the most common soil lichens on the coast of California. It has small, marginate thalli (cf. the Lepraria neglecta group and Leproloma cacuminum) which are at first adnate to soil but later become erect, at least at the margins. The surface, however, is remarkably smooth, unlike that of L. neglecta. Chemically, it is close to Leproloma vouauxii with unknowns that appear to be dibenzofurans, whose presence distinguishes Leproloma from Lepraria (Purvis et al. 1992; morphology and chemistry from T. Třnsberg based on Nash, Lich. Exs. 299, additional chemistry from C. Culberson based on Weber, Lich. Exs. 455, pers. comms.). We hope that newly awakened interest in it will cause it to be described soon.
albociliatum (Desmaz.) Choisy -- LP: L-42897.
californicum Tuck. -- LP: L-42898.
lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr. -- LP: L-42892.
tenuissima Henssen -- EP: L-42647. Henssen believes this to be a non-lichenized fungus.
angelica (Stizenb.) H. Mayrh. & Sheard (Rinodina angelica Stizenb., Dimelaena angelica [Stizenb.] Hale & Culb.) -- EP: L-42657.
verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. -- LP: L-42885.
parile (Ach.) Ach. -- LP: L-42906.
cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler -- EP: L-42608; FS: on Quercus tomentella, B 84-110, R&B 89-405. Reported by Hasse (1903) as Ramalina ceruchis f. cephalota. Also known from Santa Cruz Is.: Nash 32463 (ASU); Santa Rosa Is.: Nash 32706 (ASU); San Miguel Is.: Grigarick & Schuster L-53363 (COLO); San Nicholas Is.: Foreman L-41681 (COLO); and Santa Barbara Is.: Bratt 3692 (Herb. Bratt). Many additional citations for Niebla species in the Islands will be listed in a synopsis of the genus Niebla in North America in preparation by the authors, Janet Marsh, and Thomas Nash III.
ceruchis (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler -- EP: L-42608, B&R 89-421, Bowler, Mautz and Schoenherr s.n. (Herb. Bratt); LT: L-42838; FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-410, Santesson 17946 (mixed with N. ceruchoides and N. robusta), 17977, 18038 (also mixed with N. ceruchoides and N. robusta) (UPS). Known also from Santa Barbara Is.: Bratt 4820, 4831 (Herb. Bratt); Santa Cruz Is.: Bratt 3393, 3415 (Herb. Bratt); and Santa Rosa Is.: Nash 32734 (ASU).
ceruchoides Rundel & Bowler -- EP: B 84-107, Santesson 17946 (mixed with N. ceruchis and N. robusta), 17977, 18038 (also mixed with N. ceruchis and N. robusta) (UPS). Known also from Santa Cruz Is.: Schuster 37b (COLO); Santa Rosa Is.: Nash 33103 (ASU); and Santa Barbara Is.: Bratt 4827 (Herb. Bratt).
homalea (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler -- EP: L-42637, L-42637 (LAM), B 83-101, B&R 89-420. On San Clemente Is. the most common saxicolous chemotype has divaricatic acid; a terricolous, cladiniform, sekikaic acid population is also present: B 84-99.
isidiascens Bowler, Marsh, Nash & Riefner -- EP: B&R 89-427.
laevigata Bowler & Rundel -- EP: B&R 89-419.
procera Rundel & Bowler -- EP: B&R 83-150, B 84-100, B&R 89-424.
robusta (R.H. Howe) Rundel & Bowler -- EP: L-42599, L-42599 (LAM), B&R 89-418, Santesson 17894b (Herb. Rundel, UPS); Santesson 17936, 17946 (mixed with N. ceruchis and N. ceruchoides), 17982, 18034, 18038 (also mixed with N. ceruchis and N. ceruchoides) (UPS); Moran 6852 (COLO); Bowler, Mautz and Schoenherr s.n., 16 December 1983 (Herb. Bratt).
Opegrapha sp. -- EP: L-42619, L-42623, LT: L-42847. The collections are not available for re-study at this time.
sulcata Tayl. -- LP: L-42889.
chinense (Osbeck) Hale & Ahti -- BO: L-42860.
hypoleucinum (Steiner) Hale -- LP: L-42901.
euploca (Ach.) Poelt -- EP: L-42663; LT: L-42822; LP: L-42879.
amara (Ach.) Nyl. -- LT: L-42843.
cf. bispora Lindner -- BO: L-42853. The collection is comparable to this yellow, two-spored species from the Galapagos and Revillagigedo Islands (Lindner 1934). On smooth bark.
flavicunda Tuck. -- EP: L-42607, B&R 89-414, R&B 89-100 (IRVC, WIS); LP: L-42877, L-42895. Reported by Hasse (1903).
Pertusaria sp. -- EP: B&R 89-400.
cernohorskyi (Nádv.) Essl. -- LP: L-42869.
adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier -- EP: L-42688; LP: L-42868.
callosa Nyl. -- EP: L-42643, L-42650.
clementei (Sm.) Lynge -- LT: L-42848.
phaea (Tuck.) J.W. Thomson -- EP: L-42636; LT: L-42826, L-42833.
stellaris (L.) Nyl. -- EP: L-42667.
tenella (Scop.) DC. var. tenella -- BO: L-42861; LP: L-42874.
enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt -- BO: L-42862.
isidiigera (Zahlbr. in Herre) Essl. -- LP: L-42866.
coralloides (Tuck.) Hue (Caloplaca coralloides [Tuck.] Hulting) -- EP: R&B 89-200. This perfectly good morphological genus is more distinct from Caloplaca than is Xanthoria.
decipiens (Hedwig) Hoffm. -- BO: L-42865.
scotopholis (Tuck.) G. Schneider -- LP: L-42875.
borreri (Sm.) Krog -- R&B 89-114. Reported by Riefner et al. (1995).
stictica (Duby) Krog -- LP: L-42871 (LAM).
subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog -- BO: L-42859; LP: L-42867.
quernea (Dickson) Körber (Lecidea quernea [Dickson] Ach.) -- LT: L-42842.
canariensis Steiner -- EP: B&R 89-423; B 84-111, on rock near the airfield. See Riefner and Bowler (1994) for a discussion of the mainland distribution.
farinacea (L.) Ach. -- LT: L-42839; FS: on Quercus tomentella, B 84-109, B&R 89-407. Reported by Hasse (1903) as Ramalina calicaris farinacea.
fastigiata (Pers.) Ach. -- Riefner 89-103. Reported by Riefner et al. (1995).
lacera (With.) J.R. Laundon -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-404, R&B 89-106.
leptocarpha Tuck. -- Observed in the oak grove as small, immature specimens; collections too fragmentary to have value. Reported by Hasse (1903) as R. menziesii Tuck.
menziesii Tayl. -- LT: L-42828, L-42846; FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-411. Reported by Hasse (1903) as R. reticulata.
pollinaria (Westr.) Ach. -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-406.
parishii Hasse -- EP: B&R 89-416; Lich. Exs. No. 176 (COLO).
reticulata (Taylor) Hale & Fletcher (Parmotrema reticulatum [Taylor] Choisy) -- EP: L-42653.
insularis (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel (Lecidea insularis Nyl.) -- LT: L-42825. On a thallus of Lecanora gangaleoides.
bolanderi H. Magn. -- LP: L-42903, L-42891. Det. J. Sheard.
conradii Körber -- EP: L-42672.
hallii Tuck. -- LP: L-42902. Det. J. Sheard.
luridata (Körber) H. Mayrh., Scheid. & Sheard -- EP: L-42652. Det. H. Mayrhofer.
Rinodina sp. -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-402.
babingtonii Mont. -- EP: B 83-102.
fimbriata Darbish. -- EP: L-42600, R&B 89-109.
californica Th. Fr. -- EP: L-42603, Lich. Exs. 175 (COLO), L-42603 (LA), B 84-105, B&R 89-413. Reported by Hasse (1903).
cerebriforme Egea & Torrente -- EP: R&B 89-107. Confirmed by J.M. Egea. A new record for the Channel Islands. Reported by Egea and Torrente (1995) from Los Angeles and San Luis Obispo Counties.
californica (Tuck.) Tehler (Dirina californica Tuck., Schismatomma californicum [Tuck.] Zahlbr.) -- EP: L-42669. Confirmed by A. Tehler.
fuliginosa (Hoffm.) Ach. -- LP: L-42893.
californicus Sipman (T. villosus of authors, not Norman. [Sipman 1993]) -- EP: B 83-103.
chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr. -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, R&B 89-119.
flavicans (Sw.) Norm. -- LP: L-42890.
atra (Hudson) Hafellner (Lecanora atra [Hudson] Ach.) -- EP: L-42622, R&B 89-120.
mammosum (Hepp) A. Massal. (Cypheliopsis bolanderi [Tuck.] Vainio) -- EP: L-42628, B&R 89-422; LT: L-42827 (gray, ecorticate morphology), L-42628 (LAM); BO: L-42857 (a corticate and an ecorticate morphology).
ruginosa (Tuck.) Herre ssp. pacifica Timdal -- EP: L-42671. Confirmed by E. Timdal.
tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. -- LP: L-42907 (COLO), L-42907 (LAM).
phaea Tuck. -- BO: L-42858, L-42858 (LAM).
rubicunda Stirton -- FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-408 (UC).
Usnea sp. -- BO: L-42855; FS: on Quercus tomentella, B&R 89-409 (UC). A small, bushy plant branched from the blackened base. Older parts papillate, younger parts with low soralia.
Verrucaria sp. 1 -- EP: L-42644. Extremely minute dark gray, angular areoles on a pitch black ground. Perithecia not seen. On andesite and talus.
Verrucaria sp. 2 -- EP: L-42649. Thick gray areoles with a pebbly surface (cf. V. stanfordii of Herre ). Perithecia large, visible on surface as a large black spot which is not raised. Perithecial wall thick, black, partly covered by cortex. Spores 20 x 12 µ. It would be foolish to assign names until the genus in North America is better studied.
mexicana (Gyelnik) Hale -- LP: L-42908.
somloensis (Gyelnik) Hale -- EP: L-42610; LP: L-42909.
Xanthoparmelia sp. -- EP: L-42605.
fallax (Hepp) Arnold -- LP: L-42870.
Xanthoria sp. -- EP: L-42613.
Zahlbrucknerella sp. -- LP: L-42880.
Species not included in this checklist but recorded from San Clemente Is. by Hasse (1903). Their identifications need to be verified:
Lecanora roboris (Rinodina confragosa)
Lecidea (?) sp.
We gratefully thank William Mautz for taking Bowler and Riefner with him to San Clemente Island during several of his night lizard research trips, and we thank Jan Larson, Andy Yatso, and Larry Salata of the Navy's Natural Resource Management Program for providing transportation and lodging and for their interest in the lichen flora of San Clemente Is. Weber acknowledges Arthur Boughey and Robert F. Thorne for making the Weber-Santesson excursion possible, also R. Mitchell Beauchamp for his help. We appreciate the privilege of examining material from CANL, COLO, FH, LAM, US, UPS, Herb. C. Bratt, and Herb. Rundel. To the degree allowed by the quantity of material collected, duplicates of the authors' collections have been placed in ASU, CANL, COLO, UC, US, and WIS. This study benefitted from travel support provided by National Science Foundation grant DEB 9201111 to Arizona State University, allowing the authors to visit the ASU Herbarium. Bruce Ryan examined the material from LAM while visiting IRVC. Identifications of difficult taxa were made by Othmar Breuss, José M. Egea, Samuel Hammer, Johannes Knoph, Helmut Mayrhofer, Willa Noble, Rolf Santesson, John Sheard, Anders Tehler, John Thomson, and Einar Timdal. Chicita Culberson shared her notes on the chemistry of the unnamed Leproloma. Our editor, Darrell Wright, provided substantial help with obtaining identifications of several collections.
Bowler, P.A. and R.E. Riefner, Jr. 1995. Notes on the Ramalinaceae and current related research in California, U.S.A. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 2(1): 1-5.
, , P.W. Rundel, J. Marsh and T.H. Nash, III. 1994. New species of Niebla (Ramalinaceae) from western North America. Phytologia 77: 23-37.
Brodo, I.M. 1984. The North American species of the Lecanora subfusca group. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 79: 63-185.
Chambers Consultants and Planners. 1981. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Feral Animal Removal Program, San Clemente Island, California. Prepared for the Naval Air Station, North Island, San Diego, California.
Dunkle, M.B. 1950. Plant ecology of the Channel Islands of California. Pub. Allan Hancock Pac. Exped. 13: 247-386.
Egea, J.M. and P. Torrente. 1992. Two new species of Lecanactis from Baja California. The Bryologist 95: 161-165.
and . 1995. The lichen genus Sclerophyton in the Sonoran Desert. The Bryologist 98: 207-217.
Esslinger, T.L. and R.S. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98: 467-549.
Halvorson, W.L. and G.J. Maender (Eds.). 1994. Fourth California Islands Symposium: Update on the Status of Resources. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California.
Hasse, H.E. 1903. The lichen-flora of San Clemente Island. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 2: 54-55.
Herre, A.W.C.T. 1910. The lichen flora of the Santa Cruz Peninsula, California. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 12(2): 27-269.
Jensen, D.B. 1983. The status of California's natural communities: their representation on managed areas. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished ms.
Lindner, D.H. 1934. The Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences, 1932. No. 18. Lichens. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series IV, 21: 211-224.
Llimona, X. and R.G. Werner. 1975. Quelques lichens nouveaux ou intéressants de la Sierra de Gata (Almeria, SE de l'Espagne). Acta Phytotaxonomica Barcinonensia 16: 3-32.
Mooney, H.A. 1977. Southern Coastal Scrub, pp. 471-490. In M.G. Barbour and J. Major (Eds.), Terrestrial Vegetation of California. Wiley Interscience, New York.
Mulroy, T.W., P.W. Rundel, and P.A. Bowler. 1979. The vascular flora of Punta Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Madrońo 26: 69-90.
Power, D.M. (Ed.). 1980. The California Islands: Proceedings of a Multidisciplinary Symposium. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California.
Purvis, O.W., B.J. Coppins, D.L. Hawksworth, P.W. James and D.M. Moore (Eds.). 1992. The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum Publications, London.
Raven, P.H. 1963. A flora of San Clemente Island, California. Aliso 5: 289-347.
Riefner, R.E., Jr. and P.A. Bowler. 1994. Ramalina baltica and Ramalina canariensis in North America. Mycotaxon 51: 495-501.
, , and B.D. Ryan. 1995. New and interesting records of lichens from California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 2(2): 1-11.
Sipman, H. 1993. Lichenotheca Latinoamericana a museo botanico berolinensi edita, fasciculum secundum. Willdenowia 23: 305-314.
Sundin, R. and A. Tehler. 1996. The genus Dendrographa (Roccellaceae). The Bryologist 99: 19-31.
An erroneous locality was given in the original description of Caloplaca californica Zahlbr. in Keissl. (isotypes of which were issued as No. 2968, Kryptogamae exsiccati editae a Mus. Hist. Nat. Vindobon. [Vienna Museum of Natural History]--see Keissler 1926). The isotypes, distributed to various herbaria, bear the Latin diagnosis, the description of the species, followed by the locality "San Rafael, Marin Co.," the information that it was corticolous, the collector (H. E. Parks), and the sender (W. A. Setchell); no collection date was given. Harold E. Parks, whose collections constitute a large part of the fungal herbarium at UC (University Herbarium, University of California at Berkeley) included a typed note in a later collection of this taxon (Parks 3494, 16.ix.1930), indicating that the place of collection was misstated by Zahlbruckner in the original description and that Parks 3494 came from the type locality--redwood pilings in Eureka harbor, Humboldt County, California. A comparison between the isotype, No. 2968 from Vienna, and Parks 3494 shows that the weathered surface of the redwood pilings of the latter is similar in appearance to the substrate of the isotype, indicating the accuracy of Parks's statement. In fact, a packet of Caloplaca californica (UC 1067290; Parks 2849, collected 13.vi.1925) is similar to Vienna No. 2968 and is probably the type collection. A group of specimens was sent to Vienna for the exsiccati from Berkeley in late 1925, according to the correspondence file of W. A. Setchell. Possibly the error in the locality arose because the nearby Vienna No. 2969 (labelled as Xanthoria ramulosa [Tuck.] Herre) was collected at San Rafael by Parks.
Because neither collector's number nor date of collection was included when Caloplaca stanfordensis H. Magn. was described (Magnusson 1944), it is not known whether the specimen in UC from Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. (A. C. Herre 415, 23.iv.1904, near Stanford University in the Santa Clara mountains [=Santa Cruz Mountains]) is from the type collection. It does, however, have large spores (about 16 x 7.5-8 µm) with a very wide septum (about 6.5 µm), as described by Magnusson.
Keissler, C. 1926. Schedae ad "Kryptogamas exsiccatas" editae a Museo historiae naturalis Vindobonensi (olim Museum Palatinum). Cent. XXX. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 40: 130-150.
Magnusson, A. H. 1944. Some species of Caloplaca from North America. Botaniska Notiser 1944: 63-79.
For those unfamiliar with the H.D. Thiers Herbarium with its impressive lichen collections, the following description should be of interest. The herbarium (acronym: SFSU) is available for use by all of you, and, in fact, the more it is used, the happier Dr. Dennis des Jardins, the director and curator, will be.
With 18,000 collections stored there, this is one of the largest lichen herbaria on the west coast. At the time Dr. Thiers arrived at San Francisco State in 1959 there was not a single lichen in the herbarium. The seminal collection was one his wife Ellen had made while she was a student at the Michigan Biological Station and had brought with her. In the years following his arrival Dr. Thiers and his students built up the herbarium to its present level. Lichenology has not been taught as a course since 1987, and the herbarium has grown little since then. Some borrowing still goes on by mail, 50% of it from other parts of the United States. European lichenologists have also borrowed a large number of collections. Unfortunately, many of these were never returned and are feared lost.
To illustrate the breadth of this herbarium, here are a few numbers: it contains 250 genera, 629 species and 27 additional varieties of lichens. Fifty-three of California's 58 counties are represented with most of the collections made in the northern half of the state. Although the large majority of collections were made in California, lichens are stored here from 45 states of the U.S. and from all but one of Canada's provinces and territories. Specimens from almost all the countries of Europe have found their way here, along with some from distant places like China, Australia and the Philippines; and from as far north as Greenland and as far south as Chile.
Should you want to find your way to this treasure trove of lichens, read on. Once at San Francisco State University, find the most northerly building facing 19th Avenue, at the northeast corner of the campus. This is Hensill Hall, the biology building. Proceed to the fourth floor; the herbarium is within steps of both the elevator and the stairs. In the unlikely event that the door is locked and no one hears you knock, ask a passing student or one at work in the lab across the hall, and they will probably be able to let you in. Weekdays when school is in session is the best time to go there.
Once inside, you are faced with an impressive number of large metal cabinets housing the mycological collections. Get past those and you'll find the more modest black file cabinets housing the lichens in alphabetical order by genus and species. In an even more modest box on top of one of the cabinets are the file cards referring to the lichens. Some CALS members are interested in entering this catalog into a computer database [see Bull. Cal. Lich. Soc. 2(1)). The database could then go on-line at the proposed CALS Web site.] Progress in this area continues to be slow due to technical problems such as the lack of an available computer.
For further information about the herbarium or to borrow material, contact Dr. Dennis des Jardins at (415) 388-2439.
Specimens of the crustose lichen genus Ochrolechia generally are recognizable by their lecanorine apothecia (cup-shaped fruits in which the rim is the same color as the plant body). Many species have a pink or pinkish orange disk and a relatively thick raised exciple or rim. Some have heavily pruinose disks that appear to be white or yellowish white rather than pink. Fruiting thalli resemble those of the common crustose genus Lecanora except that many Ochrolechias have the combination of larger apothecia with thicker exciples and pink disks. If one has access to a microscope and can cut a vertical section of the apothecium, the spores will immediately distinguish between Ochrolechia and Lecanora. Although both genera have colorless, simple (undivided) spores, those of Ochrolechia have 1 to 8 per ascus and are thick-walled and large (35-75 µm long and 18-40 µm wide). Spores of Lecanora are thin-walled and much smaller (about 8-21 x 5-8 µm) and always eight per ascus. The C+ red reaction, together with the hymenial characters, distinguishes some species of Ochrolechia from Lecanora. The article on Ochrolechia by Brodo (1991) describes the nineteen corticolous species reported for North America, together with a key, information on chemistry, distribution maps, and citations of representative specimens from each state by county.
An abbreviated key not requiring TLC (thin-layer chromatography) is included here, adapted from the key by Brodo (1991), containing the nine species reported for California plus three others found in southeastern Arizona and therefore possible for California. Of the other species listed for California by Tucker and Jordan (1979), O. californica Verseghy is a synonym of O. oregonensis H. Magn., and O. frigida (Sw.) Lynge f. thelephoroides (Ach.) Lynge, O. tartarea (L.) A. Massal. and O. upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal. are misidentifications for California. The last may be either O. farinacea G.E. Howard or O. szatalaënsis Verseghy, according to Brodo. In the past, collections from California were often identified as O. pallescens (L.) A. Massal. or O. parella (L.) A. Massal., but Brodo (1991) says that neither occurs in the U.S.
Some terms in the key need to be explained (see also Fig. 1). The lichen consists of apothecia (spore-containing structures) and the thallus, the vegetative part of the crust which includes its own cortex and medulla. A vertical section of an apothecium (cup-shaped fruiting body) includes the disk or fertile portion and the apothecial margin. The disk contains the spore-bearing layer or hymenium. Below the hymenium is the hypothecium, a layer that may be continuous at the sides with the exciple. The cortex is the tissue external to the green algal layer (present in both the thallus and in the margin of the apothecium or exciple). The medulla is the fungal layer internal to the algal layer in both the thallus and the exciple; it also underlies the algal layer below the hypothecium. Two kinds of vegetative reproductive structures may be present on the thallus, usually on the upper side from which they break off easily: soredia (tiny granules or dust-like particles, consisting of algae entangled in fungal hyphae) or isidia (corticate coralloid or finger-like structures). A surface may be pruinose (dusty-looking, with a layer of tiny flakes or powder that can be rubbed off), epruinose (lacking pruina or powder), scabrous (rough), rugose (wrinkled), or verruculose or
verrucose (warty). A pertusarioid apothecium resembles those of Pertusaria in having a very small, pore-like opening into the apothecium. To determine the C reaction a calcium hypochlorite (or Chlorox) bleach solution is used. UV reactions refer to long wave ultraviolet light.
I.M. Brodo and two anonymous reviewers made suggestions to improve this version of the key modified for California, for which I am grateful. Readers are urged to refer to Brodo's original article, which gives descriptions and distribution data for each of the species. It is hoped that readers will notify me of problems encountered in using this California key.
1. Thallus sorediate or isidiate 2
1. Thallus not sorediate or isidiate 4
2. Sorediate 3
2. Isidiate (none yet known with isidia in Cal.); isidia breaking down to produce a granular crust, on conifer bark, Texas to Arizona O. subisidiata Brodo
3. Soredia effuse on the surface of the thick, white verrucose thallus; all tissues C-; Humboldt Co. north to British Columbia O. farinacea G.E. Howard
3. Soredia in discrete soralia (sometimes confluent); thallus thick, verrucose; often on mosses; apothecia rare; soredia, thallus and apothecial disk C+ red, UV+ white - O. androgyna (Hoffm.) Arn.
Note: Brodo indicates that the California populations of this species are somewhat atypical and may be distinct.
4. In apothecial margin, cortex and/or medulla C+ pink to red 5
4. In apothecial margin, cortex and medulla C+ yellow or C-; cortex of thallus C- or C+ yellow 10
5. Medulla of apothecial margin C+ red (or C- in chemical race II of O. mexicana); apothecial cortex C+ or C- 6
5. Medulla of apothecial margin C-; apothecial cortex C+ red 7
6. Cortex and medulla of apothecial margin both C+ red; inner excipular ring present; cortex UV+ gold to yellow-orange; usually epruinose; algal layer beneath hypothecium and in margin; in Mexico and southern U.S., possibly in California O. mexicana Vain.
6. Cortex of apothecial margin C-, usually white pruinose; no inner excipular ring present; UV+ orange or UV-; medulla C+; in southern U.S. and Mexico, rare in California O. africana Vain.
7. Apothecial margin consisting entirely or in part of smooth, salmon-pink, shiny tissue (this tissue often restricted to a ring around the disk); apothecia 1-4.5 mm in diam.; thallus thick, white to ashy gray, rugose to verrucose; apothecial margin remaining intact and even 8
7. Apothecial margin usually without pinkish tissue or excipular ring 9
8. Algal layer continuous below the hypothecium and extending into the exciple; hymenium 180-280 µm high; spores 40-58 x 20-31 µm; apothecial margin usually rough and dull, on various barks; California to southern British Columbia
O. subpallescens Verseghy
8. Algal layer confined to lateral margin; hymenium over 320 µm high, spores 50-75 X 28-41 µm; apothecial margin thick, hard, often shiny, usually showing a double margin or inner excipular ring; apothecial cortex and thallus C+ red; on conifers, west coast from central California to Alaska
O. oregonensis H. Magn.
9. Algal layer lacking below hypothecium; apothecial margin very thick, prominent; hymenium 250-430 µm high; thallus relatively thin and smooth; mainly on smooth-barked deciduous trees, especially Alnus; along west coast from California to Alaska
O. laevigata (Räs.) Verseghy ex Brodo
9. Algal layer continuous below hypothecium and often extending into margin as well; apothecia 1-3 (-4) mm in diam. with smooth, even, prominent margins; hymenium 180-280 µm high; thallus rough (verruculose to verrucose); on deciduous trees or conifers; from British Columbia to California
O. subpallescens Verseghy
10. Apothecial disk C- or C+ yellow, often a few disks turning UV+ yellow-orange, heavily scabrose-pruinose, yellowish to yellow-orange 11
10. Apothecial disk C+ pink or red; UV- or slightly yellow-orange, lightly pruinose to pruinose-scabrose, rarely epruinose 12
11. Thallus thin (especially when on lignum, i.e., debarked wood), pale grey; apothecia scattered, not crowded; on bark or lignum
O. szatalaënsis Verseghy
11. Thallus thick, verrucose, white; apothecia usually crowded; algal layer in apothecial margin and under hypothecium; on bark (esp. Quercus, oaks)
O. farinacea G.E. Howard
12. Algal layer thick, conspicuous below hypothecium; apothecia large (to 5 mm diam.), flat, with margins relatively thin, prominent above disk or almost level with it; thallus rugose to verrucose; on conifers; S.E. Arizona to New Mexico and western Mexico
O. pseudopallescens Brodo
12. Algal layer scanty or absent below the hypothecium; apothecia 0.6-2.5 mm diam. 13
13. Thallus very thin, often reduced to a dark grey stain; apothecia with white to orange-pink margins; apothecial disks soon expanded; on conifer lignum and rarely on conifer bark; west coast and Rocky Mountains O. subathallina H. Magn.
13. Thallus thin at edge, thicker and rugose or verruculose in center; apothecial margin white, thick, prominent, often dull, rough, and decomposing; apothecium up to 2.5 mm diam.; disk often hardly exposed even when mature (but later expanding), giving the apothecium a pertusarioid appearance; west coast of U.S. O. juvenalis Brodo
Brodo, I.M. 1991. Studies in the lichen genus Ochrolechia. 2. Corticolous species of North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 733-772.
Tucker, S.C., and W.P. Jordan. 1979 ["1978"]. A catalog of California lichens. Wasmann Journal of Biology 36: 1-105.
Anders Tehler (Naturhistoriska Riksmuséet, Stockholm), long time student of the nature of lichen species and of Roccellaceae, and his student Rikard Sundin had been wondering about the relationship of commonly fertile Dendrographa leucophaea (branches mostly flattened; thalli resemble some Roccella and Niebla species) to nearly always sterile D. minor (branches mostly round in cross section; thalli resemble tufts of gray hair). Some of us here as well had been wondering about these interesting fruticose Roccellaceae of the immediate coast of Baja California, Mexico, and California, U.S.A., ranging north to Marin County. Sundin and Tehler (1996) proceeded to study a large number of Dendrographa specimens from herbaria worldwide and then travelled to America and up the Pacific coast from Baja California to Marin County to see them in the living state. This is what they found:
There are two species, but they cannot be reliably separated by the shape and size of the branches as earlier workers had tried to do (Hale 1969, 1979; Hale and Cole 1988). It was found that they can be separated reliably in the following way:
1. Medulla cottony, the hyphae free (byssoid, Gk. bysson, fine cotton); conidia averaging 11 µm long
1. Medulla coalescent, the hyphae more or less "glued" together; conidia averaging 13 µm long
In Monterey County there is much intergradation with respect to flat and round branches, as can be seen in collections at SFSU, but the species would supposedly still be distinguishable there by the coalescence of the medulla and the length of the conidia (in Sundin and Tehler's key [1996, p. 23], the conidia measurements were accidentally transposed between the leads of the first couplet). The statistical probability of these average conidia lengths coming from the same parent group was less than one chance in 10,000.
When Sundin and Tehler examined the type specimen of Dendrographa minor, they found that it had a cottony medulla and the shorter conidia, that is, it was actually D. leucophaea according to their concept, so that the name D. minor became a taxonomic synonym of D. leucophaea. This left the northern material with the coalescent medulla and longer conidia (and predominantly fine, round branches) without a scientific name. The author of the genus Dendrographa, Otto Darbishire (1870-1934), monographer of Roccellaceae, had informally applied the name D. alectoroides to two specimens of the northern material collected by Herre at Pt. Lobos in San Francisco. Rather than creating a new name, Sundin and Tehler applied this never-published name of Darbishire's to the newly nameless northern species, so that what most American lichen students have been calling Dendrographa minor Darbishire is now called D. alectoroides Sundin & Tehler forma parva Sundin & Tehler. As Rikard Sundin puts it (pers. comm.), what people have been calling Dendrographa minor varies from person to person. The material actually belongs to two different species, and only part of it, consisting of sterile southern specimens with cottony medulla and short conidia, has been merged with D. leucophaea as forma minor. The other part, consisting of northern sterile specimens with coalescent medulla and long conidia, was put together with northern fertile specimens and described as D. alectoroides.
Why forma parva? The rank of forma is in line with Sundin and Tehler's (1996) idea that the sterile form may be regarded as the anamorph (asexual or imperfect) stage of the fungus while the fertile form, forma alectoroides in this case, represents the teleomorph (sexual or perfect) stage. The same relationship exists between the two formae of Dendrographa leucophaea. Sundin and Tehler propose that among the lichens such forms should be treated under the lowest subspecific rank, that of forma.
Hale and Cole (1988) give the major secondary product as fumarprotocetraric acid, but this should be corrected to protocetraric acid in accord with Hale (1969, 1979) and the findings of Sundin and Tehler, who established that protocetraric acid is the major product while fumarprotocetraric occurs only as a trace. I chromatographed material from five of the eight Marin County populations in standard solvent systems B1 and C (C. Culberson 1972; C. Culberson and A. Johnson 1982) and found not even a trace of fumarprotocetraric acid. Fertile D. alectoroides forma alectoroides had a somewhat different chemistry with a well-developed spot (B1:5-6, C:5) which did not appear in any of the material of forma minor. Sundin (pers. comm.) suspects this is the unknown they called U2, a presumed depside whose position in their HPLC tracing (longest retention time) supports this identification (Sundin and Tehler 1996). Forma alectoroides is currently known from only the one population and should not be collected. It is less, probably much less, than 1% of the thalli; 99+% are forma parva. I will be glad to loan my collection along with color photocopies of its chromatograms to anyone who wishes to study it.
Sundin and Tehler did not have information about a significant group of six populations 20 km to the north of Pt. Reyes near the Marin-Sonoma County line. Herre (1910) refers to one of them in his discussion of the Land's End population in the city of San Francisco. This distribution in northwest Marin County with five populations in an area of 10 km2 might represent the summer breeding grounds of a bird which migrates, or once migrated, between northwest Marin County and southern California and was responsible for dispersing the lichen. Another previously undocumented population, about which I recently learned from Sylvia and Steve Sharnoff, is at Fort Cronkhite near the southwest tip of Marin County 5 km north of the Land's End population in the city of San Francisco, and on 8 November, Marin Open Space District Naturalist Bob Stewart and I discovered an eighth Marin Co. population near Vincent Landing on Tomales Bay. The Fort Cronkhite population is in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and is therefore protected, but all other Marin populations are on private land, and at least one may still be under threat from a golf course proposed for the area between the Estero de San Antonio and the Estero Americano. I looked for Dendrographa north of the Estero Americano on the southern Sonoma County coast but did not find it.
A final note concerns the orientation of the rock faces and soil banks on which Dendrographa alectoroides grows. All but one population has the lichen strongly confined to northern exposures and lacking or very scanty on other exposures. However, at abandoned "Ranch 107" on the shore of the Estero de San Antonio 2 km from the ocean, Dendrographa luxuriates on the southwest face of its rock, that is, facing down the Estero toward the mouth, suggesting it prefers not north-facing but fog-facing surfaces.
I thank Rikard Sundin and Isabelle Tavares for reviews which improved this article considerably.
Culberson, C.F. 1972. Improved conditions and new data for the identification of lichen products by a standardized thin-layer chromatographic method. J. Chromatogr. 72: 113-125.
Culberson, C.F. and A. Johnson. 1982. Substitution of methyl tert.-butyl ether for diethyl ether in the standardized thin-layer chromatographic method for lichen products. J. Chromatogr. 238: 483-487.
Hale, M.E. 1969. How to Know the Lichens. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co.
. 1979. How to Know the Lichens, 2nd ed. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co.
and M. Cole. 1988. Lichens of California. Berkeley: U.C. Press.
Herre, A.W.C.T. 1910. The lichen flora of the Santa Cruz peninsula, California. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 12: 27-269.
Sundin, R. and A. Tehler. 1996. The genus Dendrographa (Roccellaceae). The Bryologist 99: 19-31.
From the International Canopy Network (ICAN) in Washington State via Don Reynolds and Shirley Tucker:
Cobble Creek, Roseburg Bureau of Land Management (BLM), [Washington], USA -- A rare lichen, Nephroma occultum, has been discovered in this already highly controversial timber sale. BLM had reached a decision in July to clearcut this mountain top of 120 acres, in spite of the fact that it was the last gene pool for many miles of rare healthy sugar pines and seven foot diameter old-growth Douglas Firs. The sale auction was scheduled for late October, 1996. The discovery of Nephroma occultum is further proof that Cobble Creek is indeed a rare and wonderful place. The lichen has been discovered in at least three sites in the sale area.
Abbey Rosso, a former Douglas County resident, now a Ph.D. student at OSU studying lichen ecology, toured the Cobble Creek timber sale on 9/22. Abbey discovered the rare lichen in the sale. Abbey looked at 6 trees, and found the rare lichen on 3 of them. The lichen trees were at two distinct sites, at opposite ends of the sale. Each site was at or near the beginning of the two proposed new roads!
When present, Nephroma occultum occurs most frequently in the mid- to upper canopy of old growth forests. It would take either a tree climber or fallen limbs to discover this rare lichen. However, BLM illegally felled old-growth trees within the unit on the weekend of 9/14, so searching for this lichen was conducted on some of those trees. Nephroma occultum is what the Northwest Forest Plan (NFP) calls a "Rare nitrogen-fixing Lichen" and when found, BLM must manage for it. The NFP rules say: "As soon as the information becomes available, it should be used in the ... modification of activities." Abbey contacted the BLM immediately and showed them the lichen locations on 9/25. While in the field with BLM, Abbey identified a third site in still another part of the sale, again on some trees BLM had harvested for the purpose of estimating the sale value, but without having completed proper environmental analysis. BLM personnel collected samples of the lichen.
There is no word yet from BLM what their planned modifications will be. Previously, there were only 3 known occurrences of this lichen in the entire Umpqua River Watershed. Appendix J2 of NFP says that this lichen grows almost exclusively in pristine old-growth forests over 400 years. The ages of three of the lichen trees were 440, 440 and 540 years old. Environmental laws on page C-4 of the Northwest Forest Plan apply: "In most cases, the appropriate action will be protection of relatively small sites, on the order of tens of acres." It appears that BLM must protect "tens of acres" (minimum of 20 acres?) for each site location, including the locations at the beginning of the proposed roads. However, appendix J2 of the Northwest Forest Plan recommends: "Protection of key sites for the species by designation of Botanical Special Interest Areas or Areas of Critical Environmental Concern is important mitigation for them." In the spirit of ecosystem management, BLM should follow the scientific recommendation and withdraw the entire Cobble Creek timber sale.
Don R. Reynolds, Natural History Museum, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007, USA. Telephone 213 744 3232. FAX 213 746 2999.
A successful field trip to the southern Oregon coast took place on the weekend of October 19 and 20. The twenty-one participants included some new faces from Oregon, thanks to the invitation extended via the Northwest Lichen Guild. A full report on this expedition, including lichen lists, will appear in the next Bulletin.
The CALS poster depicting 21 California lichens in color is the only lichen poster for North America. I urge members not only to buy one of these for $8- ($10- if mailed) but also to take a sample along when attending meetings of the California Native Plant Society or other natural history organizations and take orders. Anyone interested in buying the posters in quantity may contact the Society directly; we do have wholesale rates for stores.
The posters, designed by Richard Doell and Craig Stewart from photographs by Richard, are already spreading the word that lichens are interesting and beautiful if you just take the time to look at them.
Posters will be available at all CALS meetings and field trips and at events such as the San Francisco Mycological Society's Mushroom Fair (see announcement on this page). They are also available at all times at the CALS address in Point Richmond.
Sven Koeltz of Koeltz Scientific Books at Koenigstein has been particularly friendly and helpful with providing such items as Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs ($105- for the two volumes) and Bestimmungsschlüssel Europaischer Flechten, and I would like to recommend him to our readers. He answers E-mail instantly at email@example.com and has just set up a Web site (http://www.koeltz.com) which he describes as follows:
Your colleagues can check all our lichen books, print out the whole list, etc. Search is possible by author, title, categories (e.g., lichens, algae, fungi, Japan, Brazil, etc.). Users may also subscribe to our free catalogs (electronic or hard copy). Kind regards and all the best to you.
Koeltz Scientific Books, P.O. Box 1360, D-61453 Koenigstein, Germany. Fax: (+49) 6174 937240.
Time flies, and it is once more time to think CALS dues. With this issue of the Bulletin you will find a return envelope to facilitate payment of dues for 1997. These are due on January 1 and delinquent on April 1. Categories remain the same:
or hardship $10-
All members have the same privileges regardless of the dues category.
December 8: Mushroom Fair from 10 to 5 at the County Fair Building in Golden Gate Park. This event, presented by the San Francisco Mycological Society and organized under the direction of CALS member Lisa Bauer, promises to be a large and lively affair. Barbara Lachelt and Lynn Marsh are preparing a lichen display with the theme "Lichens and their Habitats". Bill Hill will man his microscopes as in the past, and Richard Doell will give several presentations of new, short multi-media lichen and mushroom slide shows.
January 5, 1997: San Bruno Mountain, San Mateo County. Mark Mencke of the Yerba Buena Chapter of the California Native Plant Society is organizing a field trip to San Bruno Mountain to look at lichens and has invited CALS members to join the group. CALS member Mikki McGee will lead the walk. Call Mikki at (415) 467-5285 or Mark at (415) 824-8959 for details.
January 14: CALS member Don Kowalski will teach a class entitled "Lichens of California" at the Coast Campus of the College of the Redwoods in Fort Bragg. The class will meet on Tuesdays from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. and will end May 20. Tuition is $32-. Contact Don at (707) 964-7213 or write to him at P.O. Box 1415, Fort Bragg, CA 95927.
January 19-20: Field Trip to Napa County. This will be a trip to the Wantrup Wildlife Sanctuary in Pope Valley. The area's lichen habitats include oak woodland, boulders and trees of Las Posadas State Forest, rocks of the Sonoma Volcanic Formation and a serpentine area. Resident manager and CALS member Joe Callizo has
invited us to visit the Sanctuary as his guests, and, if some of those attending volunteer to bring some food, there will be no charge for what promises to be a most interesting field trip. The residence at Wantrup sleeps eight persons in four bedrooms, eight to ten on cots in the large living room, and others on the porch, with room for several RV's in the yard. Weather might be problematic, but the residence has indoor space for study and/or lectures. Call Janet Doell, (510) 236-
0489, or Barbara Lachelt, (415) 456-2918, by January 14 to let us know if you are coming. For directions see the map below.
February 14-16: Lichen Workshop at the Jepson Herbarium. CALS members Dr. Larry St. Clair of Brigham Young University and Clayton Newberry of UC Berkeley will teach a lichen workshop as part of the Weekend Workshops sponsored by the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium. This will be a short course in lichenology with a heavy emphasis on basic skills for field identification. There will be a seminar on the use of lichens as biomonitors of air quality and a field trip. Tuition is $135- for members of the Friends of the Herbarium, $150- for non-members (membership is $25-). For further information contact Susan D'Alcamo, (510) 643-7008.
February 14: CALS Reception for Dr. Larry St. Clair. The California Lichen Society will host a reception for Dr. St. Clair following the general audience seminar on the evening of Friday, February 14. The subject of the seminar will be the use of lichens as biomonitors of air quality. Those interested in this open event should come to Room 1001, Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley at 7 p.m. Someone will be at the north end of the building to let you in. Evening parking is available at faculty-staff, student
and non-restricted central campus permit areas. Bring $3- in quarters for the meter. The Valley Life Sciences Building is within walking distance of BART. See map.
April 19-20: Spring Field Trip to Lake County. Plan to join CALS on a field trip to Lake Pillsbury on this weekend. Darrell Wright is familiar with the area and will lead the hikes. He promises a generous lichen flora, and with any luck there should be wildflowers galore as well. Details will be sent out in a later mailing.
Fall, 1997: CALS crustose experts Dr. Shirley Tucker and Cherie Bratt will hold a workshop in Santa Barbara. This is for the convenience of our southern members and of these instructors who have been very generous in the past about coming north to our activities. This is tentatively planned as a 3-day workshop followed by an excursion to Santa Cruz Island if there is enough interest. There will be a fee; the amount is still undetermined. We will keep you informed as details are worked out.
You will have read elsewhere that we have had a change of watch with regard to the editorship of the Bulletin. We have lost our managing editor and gained a new one in something like the blink of an eye.
Darrell Wright has been very instrumental in the success of the California Lichen Society by taking on the editorship of our Bulletin and doing a fantastic job. Many of our members belong to CALS primarily to receive the Bulletin. On behalf of the Society I would like to thank Darrell most heartily for the long hours and hard work it has taken over the last three years to produce this publication.
We need to thank Dr. Isabelle Tavares that even as Darrell's last Bulletin goes to press, a new managing editor has been found to replace him. Let's welcome Dr. Richard Moe to the CALS editorial staff and thank him for being willing to take over this important and time consuming task. Dr. Moe sends this biographical note:
Dick Moe [he says he is comfortable with informality] is a phycologist with an interest in marine algae, especially Antarctic marine algae. Isabelle Tavares recently introduced him to the wonders of corticolous crustose lichens. He helped to assemble the Catalogue of benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean (Univ. Calif. Publ. Botany 79, 1996) and produced camera ready copy for the University of California Press. He indulged his interest in electronic publication by generating an electronic version of the catalogue (http://ucjeps.herb.berkeley.edu/rlmoe/tioc/ioctoc.html).
Many thanks to those who took the trouble to return the ballot distributed with the last Bulletin. There were no negative votes in the 20 ballots received, and, as any non-vote was recorded as positive, the new by-laws were accepted unanimously. The main thrust of the changes in the by-laws was the increase in the number of officers from two to four and the formation of a Board of Directors of five members. This was necessary, as CALS continues to grow and expand.
At the year's end we can look back on a reception for Dr. Tom Nash, three field trips, two classes, the production of a lichen poster and the publishing of two Bulletins. Membership grew to 142 and seems to be stabilizing just below that number. Next year promises to be just as productive, and I invite members to suggest what new directions CALS might take to address your needs and interests.
Best wishes for the coming Holiday Season and all of 1997.
Down the Bayou
Mary Ashley Townsend
(Sent to Shirley Tucker by a botanist friend in Louisiana. The "scarlet lichen" is Cryptothecia rubrocincta, which covers entire trunks of old live-oaks there.)